Category Archives: Investments

Office of Tax Simplification Publishes First Stage of Capital Gains Tax Review

It should come as no surprise that in light of increased public spending, the government are looking at potential ways to reform the tax system.

The Office of Tax Simplification (OTS) has issued one of two reports on the Capital Gains Tax system which are written for the treasury to help inform them on how they can raise taxes to help sure up the country’s finances. Their initial recommendations would lead to significant changes if implemented as suggested.

Capital Gains Tax is a tax applied on profit when you sell or dispose of something (an ‘asset’) that’s increased in value.

As things stand the full gain after deduction of the annual exempt amount (with no adjustment for inflation) is added on top of income to determine the rate of tax which will apply. For gains made on non-residential assets falling within the basic rate threshold, a rate of 10% will apply. For gains falling into higher rate thresholds, a rate of 20% will apply. The rate of tax applying to residential property assets is higher for both basic rate and higher rate taxpayers and is charged at 18% and 28% respectively.

Some of the recommendations and policy considerations are discussed below.

  1. Annual Allowance

Currently the annual exemption allows chargeable gains up to £12,300 each year to be taken free of tax. This has the effect of taking many individuals with relatively modest gains out of the need to report or pay tax on them.

It is also a very effective way of limiting the gains payable on an investment portfolio by ensuring sufficient gains are realised each year to utilise the allowance. This is currently worth up to £2,460 a year for a higher rate taxpayer and £1,230 for a basic rate taxpayer. If the exercise is repeated each tax year, the tax savings can have a significant impact on the net investment return.

The OTS considers this allowance to be too generous after review of initial policy intentions and have suggested that the treasury reduce the allowance significantly.

  1. Rate of Capital Gains Tax

The OTS suggest that the multiple capital gains tax rates should be simplified and that Capital Gains Tax rates should align more closely with income tax rates.

If the latter is implemented, the OTS suggest the government should consider reintroducing a mechanism to relieve inflationary gains.

  1. Interaction with lifetime gifts and IHT

Inheritance tax (IHT) and CGT are linked. On death if one of these taxes is chargeable then generally the other does not apply.

The OTS looked at this interaction last year in their review of IHT. They concluded it was complex and could affect decision making particularly around how and when to pass on assets to future generations.

They also flagged that where assets benefit from business property relief (BPR), agricultural property relief (APR) or the spousal exemption, then neither IHT nor CGT would be payable.

When someone dies, there’s no CGT charged on the assets they own, just IHT. The beneficiaries of the estate will acquire assets at market value at the date of death. This is commonly known as ‘market uplift’.

The OTS recommended that where IHT relief is applied there should be no CGT market uplift. This would mean there’s still no charge on death but, instead, assets would be transferred on a ‘no gain, no loss’ basis meaning that beneficiaries will acquire the assets at the cost to the deceased.

They have also suggested that consideration is given to applying this principle more widely so that the Capital Gains Tax uplift on death is replaced with the base cost.

  1. Exemptions & Reliefs

The OTS are also investigating a range of exemptions and reliefs available to determine if they continue to meet their policy objective and aren’t distorting behaviours. Business Asset Disposal Relief and Gift Holdover relief are discussed below.

Entrepreneurs Relief (now known as Business Asset Disposal Relief) is under the spotlight. If you’re entitled to Entrepreneurs’ Relief, qualifying gains up to the lifetime limit applying at the time you make your disposal, will be charged to CGT at the rate of 10%. In his last Budget the Chancellor cut the lifetime limit on the amount of relief from £10m to £1m.

The OTS suggests the Government should consider replacing Business Asset Disposal Relief with a relief more focused on retirement; and abolish investors’ relief.

Gift Holdover Relief allows the donor to make gifts without triggering a disposal for CGT and any gain is deferred until the recipient of the gift disposes of the asset. The relief currently applies to gifts of business assets, including unquoted shares, and also where any asset is gifted to a ‘relevant property trust’ (i.e. discretionary trust). The OTS has suggested that the government consider extending Gift Holdover Relief to a broader range of assets.

In the 2017-18 tax year £8.3 billion of Capital Gains Tax was paid and £55.4 billion of net gains (after deduction of losses) reported by a total of 265,000 individual UK tax payers. Whilst not an insignificant amount, this compares with £180 billion of Income Tax paid in the same tax year by 31.2m individual taxpayers. Clearly, CGT has been identified as one area where tax collections could be increased substantially. It would therefore be fair to expect some – if not all – of the above recommendations to be brought in by the government in the not too distant future.

NB. The Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) does not regulate tax advice.

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Investing Through the Current Crisis and Beyond

Financial markets have seen increased volatility since the outset of the Covid-19 pandemic, and with a continual flow of new information there is no clear indication as to whether markets are priced too high or too low.

With this in mind, we would like to share seven principles that we believe give a concise strategic framework for investing money in the current climate and beyond.

Get advice

When markets are moving up, worries of investors tend to be low as they are comforted by the increase in value of their wealth. However, investor behaviour can change as markets fall. The primary offender in this regard is loss aversion which often leads to bad decision making. Taking, and continuing to take, financial advice will help you understand the current investment landscape and prevent decisions that could adversely affect your ability to build wealth over the longer term.

Make an investment plan and stick to it

Whether you are saving for retirement, funding your retirement via income withdrawals, saving for a special event, utilising various tax efficient investment vehicles, investing for income or growth, or investing in your capacity as a Trustee, Attorney or Deputy, never lose sight of why you have invested in the first place; to achieve long term returns in excess of cash plus inflation.

Invest as soon as possible

Timing the market is a notoriously difficult skill to master and one that is fraught with risk. By investing at the earliest possible opportunity, you will allow your investment sufficient time to ride out the peaks and troughs of the market.

Don’t just invest in cash

With interest rates currently at all-time lows and the consensus seeming to provide little prospect for increases over the short term, cash is certainly not king. Therefore, it is imperative that investors look to use other asset classes that can provide the potential for greater long term gains and ultimately protect the value of their wealth after inflation.

Diversify your investments

Or quite simply, do not have all your eggs in one basket. Diversifying across different asset classes and geographic regions will not only help to mitigate risk but will assist in generating positive, long term returns.

Invest for the long term

This, we believe, is the key to successful investing. Not only does it give you time to ride out the peaks and troughs of market movements but it also gives you the opportunity to invest in assets that have the potential for significant long term growth. Short term investing is more akin to speculation, leaving a greater exposure to the vagaries of the market.

Stay invested

History has shown that markets go up and down, and when they fall, they recover. Staying invested will ensure you capture the long term upside of stock markets.

To highlight this, Schroders looked at the performance of the FTSE 250 Index over the last 30 years. It confirmed that remaining in the market rather than trying to time the market produced the best results.

Period invested Annualised Return
Whole 30 years 11.60%
Best 10 days missed 9.60%
Best 20 days missed 8.20%
Best 30 days missed 7.00%



When investing, it is imperative that these principles are upheld at all times. We ensure that the financial position of all our clients is sufficiently strong to withstand periods of market stress. Ultimately, the best strategy is to invest as soon as possible, and stay invested for the longest possible period of time; and these are our overarching principles when it comes to managing the investment of your money.


NB. The value of investments can fall as well as rise. You might not get back what you invest.

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Investment Committee: 2019 in Review & Outlook for 2020

The dawning of a new decade may have prompted you to reflect on the past 12 months, or look ahead and make plans for the coming months and years.

Market moves are notoriously difficult to forecast and based on 2019 alone, it’s true to say that developments in the market can often come when you least expect them.

This year, we’ve decided to take a look back at the events of 2019 in the form of a market review; setting out some of the most important factors that influenced the markets in 2019, along with a look ahead to what we may be able to expect in 2020.

Here is the first section of the report, along with a link to the full report.

We hope you find our report insightful. As ever, if you require any further information on the content covered, please contact us.

Investment Committee: 2019 in Review & Outlook for 2020

2019 Review 

January 2019 was an uncertain time for financial markets. We entered the year having seen a prolonged & consistent sell-off in global stock markets in the final quarter of 2018. This was a reflection of the global economic environment at the time and perhaps to a greater extent, the changing policies of central banks.

In response to the Global Financial Crisis, in December 2008 the US Federal Reserve (Fed) cut interest rates to 0%. US interest rates began rising again at end of 2015, and in 2018 the new chair of the Federal Reserve (Fed), Jerome Powell, quickened the pace to ‘normalisation’ by raising rates four times to a high of 2.50%.

Furthermore, in line with their intention to return to normalisation, in 2018 the Fed began to reverse the quantitative easing programme that has largely been in place since the Global Financial Crisis. This continued until the start of 2019.


Read the full report >>>


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Saving for Retirement – Are you Doing Enough?

A recent report by pensions provider Scottish Widows has found that more people than ever are saving for a comfortable retirement. Scottish Widows 15th annual Retirement Report revealed that 59 per cent of people are now saving at an adequate rate, a 4 per cent increase from 12 months ago, when the figure stood at 55 per cent. The increase in savings rates has been attributed to the rise in the minimum contribution levels of auto-enrolment pensions, introduced in April 2019.

To date, over 10 million people have been automatically enrolled in an auto-enrolment pension scheme and according to the Office for National Statistics, the proportion of individuals who are now saving into a defined contribution pension has risen from 17 per cent in 2012 to 47 per cent in 2018.

Although this is a definite step in the right direction, in many cases, it will still fail to provide a pension pot that will be adequate to see an individual through the entirety of their retirement. The Scottish Widows data found that although the proportion of under-30s now saving into a pension has increased dramatically, three in five are saving below the recommended level for a comfortable retirement and 14 per cent of the age group are not saving anything.

Furthermore, the report found that 22 per cent of adults in the UK expect they will never be able to retire.

Auto-enrolment has proven to have a measurable impact on pension savings, but the danger is thinking that this is enough. Those that are able to save more – both into pensions and ISAs – will give themselves a greater level of options when it comes to retirement.

The problem is that many people are blissfully unaware of how much they will need in retirement and therefore how much they realistically need to save. The good news is that there are many different tools available that can help clarify your position.

Regardless of your age, having the discipline of regular saving or setting goals for annual savings can go a long way to funding a financially comfortable retirement.

The Scottish Widows report can be found here.

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5 Tips on…How to Start Investing

For one reason or another, the world of investing eludes many of us. We often consider it to be beyond us, confined to the high-earners and super-rich. But maybe that perspective needs to change…

Although many people now hold a pension through their employer, without additional contributions most of us will find that, on retirement, the final pension pot will be vastly insufficient to meet our retirement objectives.

Given the proposed increases in the State Pension Age and the near eradication of Final Salary pensions, the onus is now on individuals to build an investment portfolio that can be used for their future benefit.

So how do you get going?

1. Define your objectives

The first step before making any big financial planning decisions is to think about what you want to achieve. For many of us, our primary goal will be to build a fund for a comfortable retirement, but investment objectives can be vast and varying. How you go about investing will also be influenced by your current age, your earnings, how long you intend to work for and whether you have dependants.

Taking the time to define your end goals will allow you to work backwards and set out the best way to get there.

2. Budgeting is key

Before making any investment it is vitally important that you have a good handle on your expenditure requirements. We would always advise clients to keep back a pot equal to approximately 6 months’ expenditure in cash as an ‘emergency fund’.

Once you have a pot of cash set aside, analyse your income and expenditure and determine how much you can realistically invest each month. Even if you can only afford a small amount, operating this strategy over a long period of time could have a significant impact on your financial position in the future.

3. Consider risk carefully

Investments such as stocks & shares provide the potential for capital growth over the medium to long term (in excess of 5 years). However, these types of assets are likely to fluctuate significantly in value.

Before making any investment, it is vital that you consider the extent to which you are willing to see the value of your investment fluctuate on a regular basis (i.e. your ability to cope emotionally with fluctuations in value) and your ability to observe fluctuations in the value of your investments without it adversely affecting your standard of living (i.e. how dependent are you on this money?).

4. Be realistic about timeframes

Investing is more about providing ourselves with greater options and flexibility in the future than achieving a strong return today, tomorrow, next month or even next year. When we build investment strategies for our clients, we do so with a time period of at least 5 to 10 years in mind. We are looking to achieve positive returns over the long term. If you are likely to need access to your money within the next 5 years, making an investment now will not be appropriate.

Before making any investment, think about what your objectives are (e.g. school fees, retirement etc.). If you think you might need access to the money within 5 years, you should keep it as cash.

5. Don’t be put off by the jargon

The world of stocks & shares is filled with acronyms and terminology that can be off-putting to even seasoned investors. That said, you do not need to have great expertise in analysing the shares of individual companies in order to make a suitable investment. There are many investment vehicles available that simplify the investment process. Your pension with your employer will use such vehicles to give you exposure to global markets.

Whilst many of these vehicles are heavily regulated in the way they are marketed, always take care to ensure that you understand and are comfortable with any investment you make.

6. Allocate your money sensibly

We’ve all heard of the phrase ‘don’t put all your eggs in one basket’ and this holds particularly true when it comes to investing. You’ll likely have a chunk of money tied up in property already, and it is important that you consider other assets.  The long-term aim of sensible financial planning is to build a diversified portfolio of wealth that gives you a greater number of options in later years.

7. Start investing as soon as you can to maximise the benefit of compounding

 “Compound interest is the eighth wonder of the world. He who understands it, earns it … he who doesn’t … pays it.” Albert Einstein

 A strategy that any investor can employ to increase the value of their investments over a long period of time is to maximise the benefit of compounding.

When you deposit money to a cash account, you earn interest. The next year you earn interest on both the cash you originally deposited and the interest earned from the first year. In the third year you earn interest on your original deposit and the first two years’ interest.

The effect applies to investments too and can have significant impact on their value over a long period of time.

8. Don’t try to time the market

Whether you have 30-years’ experience of investing or none, your ability to effectively time the market is limited at best. Often it is the case that delaying an investment only forces you to invest at a higher price further down the line.

To avoid the risk associated with buying at a single cost point you could stage a lump sum investment over a few months, or make monthly contributions on an ongoing basis.

9. Enjoy it!

There is certainly satisfaction to be had out of building an investment portfolio. As you observe the value of your portfolio grow over time, the possibilities of what you could do with the money invested in the future will become more clear and exciting. Getting starting is often the most difficult part, from there, you can hopefully enjoy the ride.

10. Take advice

Although it is possible to go about investing yourself, you will need to consider whether you want to invest your own time in doing this or whether you would rather hand it over to the professionals. Many people decide that the time involved in researching, monitoring, and reviewing their investments would be better spent elsewhere.

Furthermore, you need to be sure that an investment is suitable and affordable. That incorporates considerations of risk, cash flow, and the ongoing assessment of your investment portfolio. This is where the expertise of a wealth management firm is valuable. A financial planner can help you to build a portfolio of suitable investments for specific objectives and control the extent to which it goes up and down in value over the short term.


For more advice on getting started with your investment portfolio or to speak to us about your financial planning needs, please contact us.

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